Organ specific autoimmune diseases is the property of its rightful owner. Called autoimmune disease, these attacks can affect any part of the body, weakening bodily function and even turning lifethreatening. Pdf organ specific autoimmune diseases are a loosely defined collection of disorders characterized by broadly shared aspects of presumed pathogenesis. Organ and non organspecific autoimmune diseases immunological mechanisms causing the commoner non organ specific diseases with reference to. Introduction the systemic or non organ specific autoimmune diseases were initially described, characterised and categorised using the features present in the history obtained from patients who suffered from them, and the findings on clinical examination.
Organ specific autoimmune diseases are a loosely defined collection of disorders characterized by broadly shared aspects of presumed pathogenesis i. Organ specific autoimmune disorders in type 1 diabetes mellitus ashok venkatanarasu, alok sachan department of endocrinology, sri venkateswara institute of medical sciences, tirupati abstract type 1 diabetes mellitus t1dm is an autoimmune disease that results in absolute insulin deficiency due to destruction of the pancreatic beta cells. The condition is inherited, but it is associated with several autoimmune diseases. Organ specific autoimmune diseases occur as a result of genetic predisposition and environmental influences. Frequently these diseases, when undiagnosed and untreated, are associated with a poor prognosis for the patient. Organ specific autoimmune diseases in this type, the immune response is directed to a target antigen unique to a single organ or gland. In autoimmunity an organspecific disease is one in which an immune response is directed toward antigens in a single organ. It mainly manifests as hashimotos thyroiditis ht and graves disease. Organspecific and systemic autoimmune diseases originate. Organ specific antibodies were looked for in 26 patients with lichen sclerosus. In this context, we decided that it would be important to determine whether transplantation of particular bone marrow cells, especially hematopoieticstemcells frombonemarrowofautoimmuneprone mice, would lead to the development ofautoimmune.
It is a complex genetic disorder, and hla status appears to be the. There are also a number of animal models of organ specific autoimmunity. The systemic or non organspecific autoimmune diseases were initially. Systemic diseases can affect any part of the body and several. Do organspecific suppressor t cells prevent autoimmune. In organspecific autoimmune diseases, the autoimmune responses are directed against antigens present only in a particular organ table 20. Lupuspronemice are susceptible to organ specific autoimmune disease, experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Immunogenetic mechanisms for the coexistence of organ specific and systemic autoimmune diseases. Organ specific autoimmune disorders usually target an antigens present on a single organ or tissue and an immune response is limited to that specific organ. There are at least 80 types of autoimmune diseases. Organspecific autoimmune diseases, as the name suggests, are defined as disorders in which the bodys immune response attacks healthy cells in a specific organ. Digestive disease institute understanding liver disease treatments and options. Ultraviolet radiation and organspecific autoimmune.
Both types of autoimmune diseases may coexist in the same patient, either sequentially or concurrently, sustained by the presence of autoantibodies directed against the corresponding autoantigens. The essential feature of an autoimmune disease is that tissue injury is caused by the immunologic reaction of the organism against its own tissues. A healthy immune system defends the body against disease and infection. Organspecific autoimmune disorders autoimmune disorders. This fully revised 5th edition incorporates new material and combines common themes underlying inductive and effector mechanisms and therapies that relate generally to the autoimmune disorders. In systemic lupus there are autoantibodies to dna, which cannot evoke a t cell. Autoimmune diseases arc cither organ specific or systemic. For clinicians, autoimmune diseases appear to be either systemic e. Search genetic and rare diseases information center.
Autoimmune diseases autoimmune disorders are a broad spectrum of disease that can affect any part of the body. The nonorganspecific diseases, which include the rheumatological disorders, characteristically involve the skin, kidney, joints and muscle figure4 an individual may have more then one autoimmune disease. A proposed classification of the immunological diseases plos. Organ specific autoimmune diseases involve th1 cellmediated immune processes. Ten of the 25 female patients 40% had organ specific antibodies to thyroid cytoplasm and 11 44% had organ specific antibodies to gastric parietal cells. In case of organ specific diseases, the immune response is directed to a target antigen unique to a single gland or organ. This condition is characterized by autoimmune thyroiditis along with another organ specific autoimmune disease.
Organspecific and systemic autoimmune diseases phadia. Since publication of the 4th edition of the autoimmune diseases in 2006, the understanding of the immune mechanisms underlying autoimmunity and autoimmune disease has significantly deepened and broadened. Autoimmune diseases can be classified into 2 broad categories 1. Common symptoms include low grade fever and feeling tired. What links here related changes upload file special pages permanent. Inflammation is the classic sign of autoimmunity although how this impacts on an individual is determined by which part of the body is affected. Autoimmune diseases in partnership with to date, more than 80 autoimmune diseases have been identified1 more than 23. This observation led to the idea that there was a general susceptibility to organspecific autoimmune disease in nod mice encoded outside of the mhcan immunological gun with a faulty triggerand that changes in the way particular antigens were presented simply pointed the gun at different target antigens and organs 6. I further show that a small pool of retinal protein specific t cells escaped thymic deletion due to the hypomorphic aire function and escaped peripheral tolerance in the presence of lyndeficient dendritic. Within this group, the endocrine system appears to be a common target for autoimmune disease and will be the primary focus of this article. Nonorgan specific autoimmune diseases flashcards quizlet.
But if the immune system malfunctions, it mistakenly attacks healthy cells, tissues, and organs. Autoimmunity, on the other hand, refers merely to the presence of antibodies or t lymphocytes that react with selfantigens and does not necessarily imply that the selfreactivity has pathogenic. Other articles where organspecific autoimmune disease is discussed. This c lassification, although clinically use ful, does not. Particular haplotypes of the major histocompatibility complex, such as hladr3dqb10201, are strongly associated with human susceptibility to multiple organspecific autoimmune disorders 3. An autoimmune disease is a condition arising from an abnormal immune response to a normal body part. Overview of the epidemiology of ai diseases organ specific diseases include diseases such as hashimotos thyroiditis and coeliac disease, in which specific organs in coeliac disease, the lining of the small intestine are attacked by the immune system. Examples are addison disease, in which autoantibodies attack the adrenal cortex, and myasthenia gravis, in which they attack neuromuscular cells. Summary of research activities by disease categories chronic diseases and organ systems twoyearold hannahs56 greatgrandmother, who was born in 1900, died of tuberculosis in her thirties.
Pdf lupuspronemice are susceptible to organspecific. Possibly symptomatic of autoimmune diseases, but not a disease or a cause of disease. Organspecific autoimmune diseases in this type, the immune response is directed to a target antigen unique to a single organ or gland. Organspecific and systemic autoimmune diseases originate from defects in hematopoietic stem cells. Autoimmune disorders are broadly grouped into two categories organ specific means one organ is affected, while in non organ specific disorders, multiple organs or body systems may be affected. From systemic t cell selfreactivity to organ specific autoimmune disease via immunoglobulins. More than 80 have been identified, a considerable number with similar symptoms. In 2002, the adcc prepared and presented to congress the autoimmune diseases research plan, a comprehensive research agenda to quantify and monitor the burden of autoimmune diseases, determine the causes. Both values were significantly greater than those obtained in agematched controls. Organspecific diseases include diseases such as hashimotos thyroiditis and coeliac disease, in which specific organs in coeliac disease, the lining of the small intestine are attacked by the immune system. Systemic lupus erythematosus sle is the classical systemic autoimmune disorder. In many autoimmune diseases, particularly early in the disease coursewhen it is most modifiablepatients often present with overlapping clinical features, making diagnosis by symptoms alone nearly impossible. Autoimmune diseases can be divided into two groups. In systemic diseases the immune system attacks self.
As a result, the manifestations are largely limited to that organ. Immunogenetic mechanisms for the coexistence of organ. Digestive disease institute understanding liver disease. Symptomatic of autoimmune diseases or autoimmune activity, but not a disease or a cause of disease. Organspecific autoimmunity resulting from combined. Type 1 diabetes and a certain kind of hepatitis are among the autoimmune conditions in which the immune system attacks one organ. It is a chronic, progressive joint disease, characterized by annesophie korganow,1,2,7 hong ji,1,7. Adult celiac disease followed by onset of systemic lupus erythematosus. If so, share your ppt presentation slides online with. Indeed, mice with a dominantnegative allele of aire and deficiency in lyn spontaneously developed organ specific autoimmunity in the eye.
In some autoimmune diseases the autoantibodies bind to selfantigens in the organ. The non organ specific diseases, which include the rheumatological disorders, characteristically involve the skin, kidney, joints and muscle figure4 an individual may have more then one autoimmune disease. Organ specific autoimmune disorders in tidm venkatanarasu. What causes clustering of different autoimmune diseases along genetic lines, and what logic causes the immune system to take aim at different organ targets. S ikehara, m kawamura, f takao, m inaba, r yasumizu, s than, h hisha. Organ specific autoimmune diseases affect particular targets in the body, whereas systemic diseases engage multiple organs. In organ specific autoimmune diseases, the autoimmune responses are directed against antigens present only in a particular organ table 20. Polio crippled her grandfather, and other family members died at young ages of influenza and typhoid. The common target organs in organspecific disease include the thyroid, adrenals, stomach and pancreas. Autoimmune disorders occur when the bodys immune system inappropriately attacks the bodys own healthy tissues. Introduction the aim of this chapter is not to provide an exhaustive account of all the autoantibodies associated with autoimmune disease but to highlight the important autoantibody associations with disease, and their diagnostic significance. Identify the link between the symptoms, signs and laboratory investigations to specific autoimmune disorders.
Both types of autoimmune diseases may coexist in the same patient, either sequentiall. Pdf animal models of organspecific autoimmune disease. Autoimmune mechanisms underline many diseases, some organspecific, others systemic in distribution. Abstract autoimmune thyroid disease aitd is one of the most common organ. The cells of the organ may be damaged directly by humoural or cell mediated effector mechanisms.
The genetic predisposition accounts for the fact that different autoimmune conditions may be associated in patients or their family members, as well as for the wellknown feature that single autoimmune diseases often run in families. Microbiology module autoimmunity and autoimmune diseases microbiology 576 notes glands or it may involve particular cellstissues all over the body when it is called non organ specific or disseminated disease e. Your liver is the largest internal organ in your body, performing more than 5,000 separate bodily functions from cleansing the blood of toxins to converting food into nutrients to. Autoimmune hepatitis, hashimotos thyroiditis, graves disease, type 1 diabetes, addisons disease, and sjogrens syndrome are some of the more common organspecific autoimmune conditions. The inheritance of susceptibility to organspecific autoimmunity is extraordinarily complex. There is a variety of inbred strains of mice that have a disease closely resembling systemic lupus erythematosis 6. Autoimmunity is the system of immune responses of an organism against its own healthy cells. Hlatype nevertheless accounts for only a fraction of inherited susceptibility, and heterozygosity for. The common target organs in organ specific disease include the thyroid, adrenals, stomach and pancreas. Summary of research activities by disease categories. Two different types of ehc documents are available. Organspecific autoimmune disease pathology britannica. In some autoimmune diseases the autoantibodies bind to selfantigens in the organ cells and lead to destruction of cells. An organ specific disease is one in which an immune response is directed toward antigens in a single organ.1535 828 172 1215 1213 928 1506 213 93 1452 203 70 406 964 652 1496 648 1414 1033 1385 146 605 123 51 1404 1168 393 1314 1210 93